History of titanium alloy development

Titanium alloy is a new important structural material used in the aerospace industry, the specific gravity, strength and temperature of use are between aluminum and steel, but higher than strength and excellent resistance to seawater corrosion and ultra-low temperature performance.
In 1950, the United States for the first time in the F-84 fighter bomber used as the rear fuselage heat shield, air guide hood, tail cover and other non-force components. The use of titanium alloy began in the 60's from the rear fuselage to the middle fuselage, partially replacing structural steel manufacturing spacers, beams, flap rails and other important supporting components.
The amount of titanium alloy used in military aircraft increased rapidly, reaching 20% to 25% of the weight of aircraft structure. Since the 1970s, civilian aircraft began to use a large number of titanium alloy, such as Boeing 747 aircraft with titanium volume of more than 3640 kg. Aircraft with mach less than 2.5 use titanium primarily to replace steel to reduce structural weight. For example, the U.S. SR-71 high-altitude high-speed reconnaissance aircraft (flying Mach 3, flight altitude of 26,212 meters), titanium accounted for 93% of the weight of the aircraft structure, known as "full titanium" aircraft.
When the aviation engine thrust ratio from 4 to 6 to 8 to 10, the pressure compressor outlet temperature correspondingly increased from 200 to 300 degrees C to 500 to 600 degrees C, the original low-pressure compressor discs and blades made of aluminum must be converted to titanium alloy, or titanium alloy instead of stainless steel to manufacture high-pressure compressor discs and blades, in order to reduce structural weight.
In the 1970s, the amount of titanium alloy in aviation engines generally accounted for 20% to 30% of the total weight of the structure, mainly used in the manufacture of compressor components, such as forging titanium fans, compressor discs and blades, cast titanium compressor box, intermediary box, bearing housing and so on.
The spacecraft mainly uses the high ratio strength of titanium alloy, corrosion resistance and low temperature resistance to manufacture a variety of pressure vessels, fuel tanks, fasteners, instrument straps, frames and rocket shells. Man-made earth satellites, lunar modules, manned spacecraft and space shuttles also use titanium sheet welding parts.

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